What is the chemical composition of veins

Despite the economic importance and the diffusion of grapevine cultivation worldwide, little is known about leaf chemical composition. We characterized the phenolic composition of Nebbiolo, Barbera, Pinot noir, Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, and Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) healthy leaves (separating blades and veins) during the season. Quantitative and qualitative differences were found between leaf sectors and among genotypes. In healthy grapevine leaves, anthocyanins, dihydromyricetin-rhamnoside, hexosides of dihydroquercetin, and dihydrokaempferol exclusively accumulated in veins. Astilbin was the only flavanonol detected in blades and the prevalent flavanonol in veins. Barbera distinguished for the lowest proanthocyanidin and the highest hydroxycinnamate content, and Pinot noir for the absence of acylated-anthocyanins. Nebbiolo, and Cabernet Sauvignon displayed a high concentration of epigallocatechin gallate in veins. Nebbiolo leaves showed the highest concentrations of flavanonols and the widest profile differentiation. Knowledge derived from the present work is a contribution to find out leaf polyphenol potential as a part of grapevine defense mechanisms and to dissect genotype-related susceptibility to pathogens; moreover, it represents a starting point for future deepening about grapevine and vineyard byproducts as a source of bioactive phenolic compounds.